Stellar metamorphosis

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Stellar Metamorphosis is a physical theory of star evolution. It explains what happens as a star cools and combines its elements into molecular compounds. It holds that the root assumption of astrophysics, namely, that stars and planets are mutually exclusive is incorrect. Stellar metamorphosis holds that stars and planets are the same objects only in different stages of evolution.[1][2] Metamorphosis takes many billions of years and creates what are known as gas giants, smaller rocky planets, moons, every naturally occurring molecular compound on the Earth, and even life itself. The conclusion of stellar metamorphosis is that we observe many stars in different stages of evolution, and we interact with one a daily basis as the Earth itself is a black dwarf star.[3] This has enormous consequences to the prevailing Big Bang Theory which holds that black dwarfs cannot exist as they would be more ancient than the universe itself, leading to a contradiction.[4]

Stellar metamorphosis states that we can observe many different stages of star evolution in our own solar system and even outside of it in the thousands of stars in our galactic neighborhood and even hundreds of thousands of stars found by the Kepler Space Telescope. This world view of the stars thus is drastically different than what the current scientific establishment interprets as star evolution. Rather star evolution can be explained in terms of simple phase transitions, and stars themselves are simply large dissipative systems which are not currently engaged in fusion reactions.

Changing Definitions

According to stellar metamorphosis stars are young planets and planets are older stars,[1] meaning the two terms are now synonymous. This understanding also coincides with the definition for planet Template:Ety. This theory corrects the initial claims for the discovery of exoplanets,[5] because it is referenced that if stars are young planets, then the very discovery of the first exo-planet goes to the first human to ever look up at the night sky on a clear night.

Alternative Interpretations

Physical Theory Versus Mathematical Theory

The consensus understanding of stellar evolution is currently based on mathematical theory and models. This is problematic because entities can be invented to explain certain phenomenon and be proven to exist based on faulty assumptions, thus meaning entities can be invented that do not have physical reality such as black hole singularities.[6][7][8] According to consensus rooted in mathematical theory when a star dies it can collapse into a black hole singularity, but according to stellar metamorphosis stars undergo physical transformations and never become singularities. Physical theories based on direct observations do not require the addition of ad hoc hypothesis, therefore are much different than mathematical theories that can use false assumptions to prove the physical presence of non existent entities.

Classical View of Evolving Structures

Stellar metamorphosis uses the concept of Occam's Razor in that the simplest explanation should be used if possible. It states that stars are not mere extremely large plasma objects, but that when these objects cool they change their structure and differentiate their interiors according to the ionization energy of the material they are comprised of.[9] It stresses the importance of the electrical properties of material in its ionized state as it is widely established that electromagnetism and its effects known as electricity and magnetism are vastly more powerful than gravitation. Stars undergo vast arrays of phase transitions in many different temperatures and pressures creating a multitude of molecular compounds found in nature including but not limited to water, feldspar, quartz, basalt, coal and even amino acids themselves. This understanding is rationalized in the appearance of wide differences in the structures of stars similar in conceptualization to the metamorphosis of butterflies and moths. According to stellar metamorphosis, stars, gas giants and rocky planets are distinct stages to a single star's evolution like a butterfly changing from caterpillar, pupa to full grown butterfly.

The main idea of stellar metamorphosis concerning classical structure is that objects and processes in daily existence hold the key to understanding large and small structures. In this view galaxies themselves are analogous to Oak trees, and their acorns (seeds) as pulsars. It is referenced that pulsars themselves are embryonic galaxies and that they are a type of superconducting magnetic energy storage mechanism. According to this theory, which has a process discovered by Viktor Hambardzumyan and later pushed into the mainstream by Halton Arp,[10] pulsars will continually gain energy and eventually eject out of a galaxy to become a galaxy itself, similar to an acorn falling off an oak tree in a strong thunderstorm and growing into an oak tree. It is assumed in this new theory that pulsars contain all the information required to create a galaxy and all the matter inside of it, thus releasing the need for stars to be the source of fusion reactions.

Interpretation of Star Birth

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In this new theory gravitation is not important for the initial formation of a star. It is hypothesized that birthing stars exhibit bi-polar pinches in which interstellar gases are pinched via large electrical current, which produces powerful magnetic fields which confine the material ionizing it into a plasma. These are understood as z-pinch mechanisms.
File:Boomerang HST big.jpg
The Boomerang Nebula: A star being born via Z-pinch mechanism.

Interpretation of Proto-Planetary Disks

Stellar metamorphosis does not claim the non-existence of the naturally observed protoplanetary disks, it only seeks to correct the descriptive interpretation of their causes for formation. This new theory states that infrared radiation produced by collision events between large celestial objects would be a more reasonable explanation for an appearance of protoplanetary disks. The protoplanetary disk is interpreted as evidence for the destruction of large objects and the disk orientation they exhibit is caused by the material conserving angular momentum as it cools quickly and ceases glowing in the infrared.[11] This explanation is akin to fragmentation (weaponry), in which case large celestial bodies that collide with each other at extremely high velocity would produce incredibly large explosions and fields of shrapnel that would encompass entire solar landscapes.

Problems with Iron Catastrophe and Rain-Out Model

In the iron catastrophe and rain-out models of planetary differentiation it is assumed that iron and nickel are the heaviest of elements and that they would sink towards the center of the Earth first as it takes shape. This is problematic, as iron and nickel are relatively light compared to most heavy metals, such as tungsten, gold, lead, bismuth, mercury, silver, osmium, iridium, etc. Yet these much denser, heavier metals exist in the very top portions of the Earth, embedded in the crust sometimes in pure form. Stellar metamorphosis corrects this faulty assumption. It states that the actual density of a metal is irrelevant for differentiation as per the iron catastrophe and rain out models, and that young stars actually exhibit vacuum vapor deposition mechanisms which can create and collect pure substances of materials[12] depending on their abundances and locations. As the star cools, the majority of the iron is collected in the center during red dwarf stages.[13] The iron that makes up the star is layered on over many millions of years. Reasoning for the initial presence of an iron/nickel substrate is provided by the meteorites that exist in the solar environment. This would be akin to a particle being deposited inside of an oyster and that oyster depositing material on it eventually forming a pearl over very long periods of time. A large iron meteorite would enter the star and to conserve angular momentum would eventually hold equilibrium in the center. Over time the star's inner vapor would collect on the meteorite, thus moving the iron vapor from the outer walls of the star to the center causing the star to shrink as the shell contracts.
File:Jupiter from Voyager 1.jpg
Jupiter undergoing differentiation.

In this new theory it is stressed that weather on all stars is the continuing differentiation process itself. The differentiation of the interiors of stars is an ongoing process which takes many billions of years and is not a short term event that happens catastrophically within a few thousand years. Rain, hurricanes, tornadoes, lightning, hail and snow are ending stages of differentiation on black dwarf stars such as the Earth. This differentiation can be observed throughout the interior of the Earth in lava flows and even in large currents of electricity which arc though the high atmosphere and even above the clouds deep into Earth's corona in what are called sprites and elves. Differentiation can also be observed in the atmosphere of Jupiter which provides an excellent view of what the Earth looked like as the material for the crust, such as iron silicates, water and hydrocarbons were being formed.

Interpretation of Red Giant Stars

Stellar metamorphosis does not mention the existence of red giant stars on the basis that they are too large to allow for any rational explanation. To correct for their unexplainable size it is proposed that their distances are miscalculated and that they are actually much closer and smaller red dwarf stars in normal stages of metamorphosis.[14]The appearance of the red giant Betelgeuse losing mass at a rapid rate is also attributed to it being a much closer red dwarf that is moving away from the Earth at a rapid rate, giving the appearance of a shrinking diameter.[15]

Star Ocean Formation

It is taught by the establishment that the material required to create vast water oceans on a star comes from outside of the star, as is the case of the Earth.[16] This explanation is unnecessary in stellar metamorphosis. In this theory all the hydrogen and oxygen is an ionized plasma in early stages of a stars evolution. As the star cools the oxygen and hydrogen plasma recombine to make water vapor, which then condenses into vast oceans thus cooling the internal compounds further and solidifying the crust. This process can be observed in intermediate red dwarfs through late stage brown dwarfs such as Jupiter. All the water on the Earth has origins on the Earth as no method of transportation though the vacuum of outer space is required.

Predictions

According to stellar metamorphosis all stars are either currently hosting life, will in the future, or have hosted life in the past, therefore predictions can be made. Uranus is predicted to currently host the beginnings of photosynthesis in its high atmosphere, which should make it appear to have a greenish tint as it is a proto-Earth in the latter stages of metamorphosis. Mars is predicted to have hosted very large water oceans[17]and life in the past. Also it is predicted that stars absolutely must have strong global magnetic fields in order to host life [18], thus meaning Mars is currently not habitable.

The statistical significance of stellar metamorphosis is also brought to the forefront. Since every star is a planet then we should find that every star is statistically hosting at least one planet as they are the same objects.

General Conclusion of Stellar Metamorphosis

In this theory it is assumed that the general structures of celestial bodies can be predicted by their appearances using deductive reasoning based on the composition and structure of the Earth itself. Under the premise that all stars will undergo plasma recombination into gas, and gas deposition into solids and wide ranges of thermodynamic phase transitions not mentioned here, the Earth itself stands as a ground for study of the eventual evolution of all stars. Stellar metamorphosis concludes that the study of the Earth itself is essentially astrophysical in nature, regardless if current understanding of the Earth is labeled as a mutually exclusive study only involving geology.

Additionally, stellar metamorphosis states that the actual masses of objects cannot be determined via gravitational impact alone. It is assumed that all stars neither gain nor lose any appreciable mass during metamorphosis outside of flare and/or collision events, thus meaning young stars such as the Sun or middle aged brown dwarfs such as Jupiter and Saturn are actually many orders of magnitude less massive than what they are calculated to be. This additional matter ascribed to stars with higher levels of enthalpy from calculations strictly rooted in gravitational laws has lead astronomers and astrophysicists to question their understanding of the universe.

In this new theory the importance of questioning the root axioms in science is brought to the forefront. Root axioms and their logical conclusions become questionable when in order to explain events such as the irregularities of galactic motion processes and objects are invented as ad hoc hypothesis. Instead of questioning the root axiom that gravitation is directly proportional to mass in all stars, calculations have lead astronomers and astrophysicists to invent a new type of matter that has yet to be detected. Currently dark matter has yet to be observed directly and/or indirectly[19] and as predicted by stellar metamorphosis will never be, because its existence is rooted in the axiom that gravitation and mass are directly proportional for all stars. In stellar metamorphosis, gravitation and mass are inversely proportional as an object exhibits more enthalpy and gravitation becomes more directly proportional as the object lowers enthalpy and cools. Thus gravitation is more than likely a manifestation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics that does not require a mathematical 4th dimension.

References

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  5. Wolszczan, A., and D.A. Frail. A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR 1257+12. Nature 355(6356):145-7, January 9, 1992.
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  11. Gemini Observatory (2012, July 4). Poof! Planet-Forming Disk Vanishes into Thin Air. ScienceNow. Retrieved August 20, 2012, from http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/07/poof-planet-forming-disk-vanishe.html
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  19. http://www.eso.org/public/archives/releases/sciencepapers/eso1217/eso1217.pdf

See also